Spider deutsch

spider deutsch

Übersetzung im Kontext von „to Spider“ in Englisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: Run this over to Spider. Deutsche Übersetzung von "spider" | Der offizielle Collins Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch online. Über Deutsche Übersetzungen von Englische Wörtern. Übersetzung im Kontext von „to Spider“ in Englisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: Run this over to Spider.

The principal eyes are also the only ones with eye muscles, allowing them to move the retina. Having no muscles, the secondary eyes are immobile.

Some jumping spiders' visual acuity exceeds by a factor of ten that of dragonflies , which have by far the best vision among insects ; in fact the human eye is only about five times sharper than a jumping spider's.

They achieve this by a telephoto -like series of lenses, a four-layer retina and the ability to swivel their eyes and integrate images from different stages in the scan.

The downside is that the scanning and integrating processes are relatively slow. There are spiders with a reduced number of eyes, of these those with six-eyes are the most numerous and are missing a pair of eyes on the anterior median line , [22] others species have four-eyes and some just two.

Cave dwelling species have no eyes, or possess vestigial eyes incapable of sight. As with other arthropods, spiders' cuticles would block out information about the outside world, except that they are penetrated by many sensors or connections from sensors to the nervous system.

In fact, spiders and other arthropods have modified their cuticles into elaborate arrays of sensors.

Various touch sensors, mostly bristles called setae , respond to different levels of force, from strong contact to very weak air currents.

Chemical sensors provide equivalents of taste and smell , often by means of setae. Males have more chemosensitive hairs on their pedipalps than females.

They have been shown to be responsive to sex pheromones produced by females, both contact and air-borne. In web-building spiders, all these mechanical and chemical sensors are more important than the eyes, while the eyes are most important to spiders that hunt actively.

Like most arthropods, spiders lack balance and acceleration sensors and rely on their eyes to tell them which way is up. Arthropods' proprioceptors , sensors that report the force exerted by muscles and the degree of bending in the body and joints, are well understood.

On the other hand, little is known about what other internal sensors spiders or other arthropods may have. Each of the eight legs of a spider consists of seven distinct parts.

The part closest to and attaching the leg to the cephalothorax is the coxa ; the next segment is the short trochanter that works as a hinge for the following long segment, the femur ; next is the spider's knee, the patella , which acts as the hinge for the tibia ; the metatarsus is next, and it connects the tibia to the tarsus which may be thought of as a foot of sorts ; the tarsus ends in a claw made up of either two or three points, depending on the family to which the spider belongs.

Although all arthropods use muscles attached to the inside of the exoskeleton to flex their limbs, spiders and a few other groups still use hydraulic pressure to extend them, a system inherited from their pre-arthropod ancestors.

Most spiders that hunt actively, rather than relying on webs, have dense tufts of fine hairs between the paired claws at the tips of their legs. These tufts, known as scopulae , consist of bristles whose ends are split into as many as 1, branches, and enable spiders with scopulae to walk up vertical glass and upside down on ceilings.

It appears that scopulae get their grip from contact with extremely thin layers of water on surfaces. The abdomen has no appendages except those that have been modified to form one to four usually three pairs of short, movable spinnerets , which emit silk.

Each spinneret has many spigots , each of which is connected to one silk gland. There are at least six types of silk gland, each producing a different type of silk.

Silk is mainly composed of a protein very similar to that used in insect silk. It is initially a liquid, and hardens not by exposure to air but as a result of being drawn out, which changes the internal structure of the protein.

In other words, it can stretch much further before breaking or losing shape. Some spiders have a cribellum , a modified spinneret with up to 40, spigots, each of which produces a single very fine fiber.

The fibers are pulled out by the calamistrum , a comb-like set of bristles on the jointed tip of the cribellum, and combined into a composite woolly thread that is very effective in snagging the bristles of insects.

The earliest spiders had cribella, which produced the first silk capable of capturing insects, before spiders developed silk coated with sticky droplets.

However, most modern groups of spiders have lost the cribellum. Tarantulas also have silk glands in their feet. Even species that do not build webs to catch prey use silk in several ways: Spiders reproduce sexually and fertilization is internal but indirect, in other words the sperm is not inserted into the female's body by the male's genitals but by an intermediate stage.

Unlike many land-living arthropods , [30] male spiders do not produce ready-made spermatophores packages of sperm , but spin small sperm webs on to which they ejaculate and then transfer the sperm to special syringe -like structures, palpal bulbs or palpal organs, borne on the tips of the pedipalps of mature males.

When a male detects signs of a female nearby he checks whether she is of the same species and whether she is ready to mate; for example in species that produce webs or "safety ropes", the male can identify the species and sex of these objects by "smell".

Spiders generally use elaborate courtship rituals to prevent the large females from eating the small males before fertilization, except where the male is so much smaller that he is not worth eating.

In web-weaving species, precise patterns of vibrations in the web are a major part of the rituals, while patterns of touches on the female's body are important in many spiders that hunt actively, and may "hypnotize" the female.

Gestures and dances by the male are important for jumping spiders , which have excellent eyesight. If courtship is successful, the male injects his sperm from the palpal bulbs into the female's genital opening, known as the epigyne , on the underside of her abdomen.

Female's reproductive tracts vary from simple tubes to systems that include seminal receptacles in which females store sperm and release it when they are ready.

The only known exception is a spider from Israel, Harpactea sadistica , which has evolved traumatic insemination. In this species the male will penetrate its pedipalps through the female's body wall and inject his sperm directly into her ovaries, where the embryos inside the fertilized eggs will start to develop before being laid.

Males of the genus Tidarren amputate one of their palps before maturation and enter adult life with one palp only.

In the Yemeni species Tidarren argo , the remaining palp is then torn off by the female. The separated palp remains attached to the female's epigynum for about four hours and apparently continues to function independently.

In the meantime, the female feeds on the palpless male. Observation shows that most male redbacks never get an opportunity to mate, and the "lucky" ones increase the likely number of offspring by ensuring that the females are well-fed.

Some even live for a while in their mates' webs. Gasteracantha mammosa spiderlings next to their eggs capsule. Wolf spider carrying its young on its abdomen.

Females lay up to 3, eggs in one or more silk egg sacs, [8] which maintain a fairly constant humidity level. Baby spiders pass all their larval stages inside the egg and hatch as spiderlings, very small and sexually immature but similar in shape to adults.

Some spiders care for their young, for example a wolf spider 's brood cling to rough bristles on the mother's back, [8] and females of some species respond to the "begging" behaviour of their young by giving them their prey, provided it is no longer struggling, or even regurgitate food.

Like other arthropods , spiders have to molt to grow as their cuticle "skin" cannot stretch. Spiders occur in a large range of sizes.

The smallest, Patu digua from Colombia, are less than 0. Only three classes of pigment ommochromes , bilins and guanine have been identified in spiders, although other pigments have been detected but not yet characterized.

Melanins , carotenoids and pterins , very common in other animals, are apparently absent. In some species, the exocuticle of the legs and prosoma is modified by a tanning process, resulting in brown coloration.

Guanine is responsible for the white markings of the European garden spider Araneus diadematus. It is in many species accumulated in specialized cells called guanocytes.

In genera such as Tetragnatha , Leucauge , Argyrodes or Theridiosoma , guanine creates their silvery appearance. While guanine is originally an end-product of protein metabolism, its excretion can be blocked in spiders, leading to an increase in its storage.

The white prosoma of Argiope results from hairs reflecting the light, Lycosa and Josa both have areas of modified cuticle that act as light reflectors.

Juveniles of some spiders in the families Anyphaenidae , Corinnidae , Clubionidae , Thomisidae and Salticidae feed on plant nectar.

Laboratory studies show that they do so deliberately and over extended periods, and periodically clean themselves while feeding.

These spiders also prefer sugar solutions to plain water, which indicates that they are seeking nutrients. Since many spiders are nocturnal, the extent of nectar consumption by spiders may have been underestimated.

Nectar contains amino acids , lipids , vitamins and minerals in addition to sugars, and studies have shown that other spider species live longer when nectar is available.

Feeding on nectar avoids the risks of struggles with prey, and the costs of producing venom and digestive enzymes. Various species are known to feed on dead arthropods scavenging , web silk, and their own shed exoskeletons.

Pollen caught in webs may also be eaten, and studies have shown that young spiders have a better chance of survival if they have the opportunity to eat pollen.

In captivity, several spider species are also known to feed on bananas , marmalade , milk , egg yolk and sausages.

The best-known method of prey capture is by means of sticky webs. Varying placement of webs allows different species of spider to trap different insects in the same area, for example flat horizontal webs trap insects that fly up from vegetation underneath while flat vertical webs trap insects in horizontal flight.

Web-building spiders have poor vision, but are extremely sensitive to vibrations. Females of the water spider Argyroneta aquatica build underwater "diving bell" webs that they fill with air and use for digesting prey, molting, mating and raising offspring.

They live almost entirely within the bells, darting out to catch prey animals that touch the bell or the threads that anchor it.

Net-casting spiders weave only small webs, but then manipulate them to trap prey. Those of the genus Hyptiotes and the family Theridiosomatidae stretch their webs and then release them when prey strike them, but do not actively move their webs.

Those of the family Deinopidae weave even smaller webs, hold them outstretched between their first two pairs of legs, and lunge and push the webs as much as twice their own body length to trap prey, and this move may increase the webs' area by a factor of up to ten.

Experiments have shown that Deinopis spinosus has two different techniques for trapping prey: These two techniques have also been observed in other deinopids.

Walking insects form most of the prey of most deinopids, but one population of Deinopis subrufa appears to live mainly on tipulid flies that they catch with the backwards strike.

Mature female bolas spiders of the genus Mastophora build "webs" that consist of only a single "trapeze line", which they patrol.

They also construct a bolas made of a single thread, tipped with a large ball of very wet sticky silk. They emit chemicals that resemble the pheromones of moths , and then swing the bolas at the moths.

The spiders eat the bolas if they have not made a kill in about 30 minutes, rest for a while, and then make new bolas. Instead they release different pheromones that attract moth flies , and catch them with their front pairs of legs.

The primitive Liphistiidae , the "trapdoor spiders" of the family Ctenizidae and many tarantulas are ambush predators that lurk in burrows, often closed by trapdoors and often surrounded by networks of silk threads that alert these spiders to the presence of prey.

Some jumping spiders of the genus Portia hunt other spiders in ways that seem intelligent, [17] outflanking their victims or luring them from their webs.

Laboratory studies show that Portia ' s instinctive tactics are only starting points for a trial-and-error approach from which these spiders learn very quickly how to overcome new prey species.

Ant-mimicking spiders face several challenges: In some spider species, males and females mimic different ant species, as female spiders are usually much larger than males.

Ant-mimicking spiders also modify their behavior to resemble that of the target species of ant; for example, many adopt a zig-zag pattern of movement, ant-mimicking jumping spiders avoid jumping, and spiders of the genus Synemosyna walk on the outer edges of leaves in the same way as Pseudomyrmex.

Ant-mimicry in many spiders and other arthropods may be for protection from predators that hunt by sight, including birds, lizards and spiders.

However, several ant-mimicking spiders prey either on ants or on the ants' " livestock ", such as aphids.

When at rest, the ant-mimicking crab spider Amyciaea does not closely resemble Oecophylla , but while hunting it imitates the behavior of a dying ant to attract worker ants.

After a kill, some ant-mimicking spiders hold their victims between themselves and large groups of ants to avoid being attacked. There is strong evidence that spiders' coloration is camouflage that helps them to evade their major predators, birds and parasitic wasps , both of which have good color vision.

Many spider species are colored so as to merge with their most common backgrounds, and some have disruptive coloration , stripes and blotches that break up their outlines.

In a few species, such as the Hawaiian happy-face spider, Theridion grallator , several coloration schemes are present in a ratio that appears to remain constant, and this may make it more difficult for predators to recognize the species.

Most spiders are insufficiently dangerous or unpleasant-tasting for warning coloration to offer much benefit. However, a few species with powerful venoms, large jaws or irritant hairs have patches of warning colors, and some actively display these colors when threatened.

Many of the family Theraphosidae , which includes tarantulas and baboon spiders , have urticating hairs on their abdomens and use their legs to flick them at attackers.

These hairs are fine setae bristles with fragile bases and a row of barbs on the tip. The barbs cause intense irritation but there is no evidence that they carry any kind of venom.

A few spider species that build webs live together in large colonies and show social behavior, although not as complex as in social insects. Anelosimus eximius in the family Theridiidae can form colonies of up to 50, individuals.

For example, although Theridion nigroannulatum belongs to a genus with no other social species, T. There is no consistent relationship between the classification of spiders and the types of web they build: Nor is there much correspondence between spiders' classification and the chemical composition of their silks.

Convergent evolution in web construction, in other words use of similar techniques by remotely related species, is rampant. Orb web designs and the spinning behaviors that produce them are the best understood.

The basic radial-then-spiral sequence visible in orb webs and the sense of direction required to build them may have been inherited from the common ancestors of most spider groups.

It used to be thought that the sticky orb web was an evolutionary innovation resulting in the diversification of the Orbiculariae.

Their greater success may be because sphecid wasps , which are often the dominant predators of spiders, much prefer to attack spiders that have flat webs.

About half the potential prey that hit orb webs escape. A web has to perform three functions: No single design is best for all prey. However, there are no consistent differences between orb webs built for use during the day and those built for use at night.

In fact, there is no simple relationship between orb web design features and the prey they capture, as each orb-weaving species takes a wide range of prey.

The hubs of orb webs, where the spiders lurk, are usually above the center, as the spiders can move downwards faster than upwards.

If there is an obvious direction in which the spider can retreat to avoid its own predators, the hub is usually offset towards that direction.

Horizontal orb webs are fairly common, despite being less effective at intercepting and retaining prey and more vulnerable to damage by rain and falling debris.

Various researchers have suggested that horizontal webs offer compensating advantages, such as reduced vulnerability to wind damage; reduced visibility to prey flying upwards, because of the back-lighting from the sky; enabling oscillations to catch insects in slow horizontal flight.

However, there is no single explanation for the common use of horizontal orb webs. Spiders often attach highly visible silk bands, called decorations or stabilimenta, to their webs.

Field research suggests that webs with more decorative bands captured more prey per hour. There are several unusual variants of orb web, many of them convergently evolved, including: However, the significance of many variations is unclear.

In , Skylab 3 took two orb-web spiders into space to test their web-spinning capabilities in zero gravity. At first, both produced rather sloppy webs, but they adapted quickly.

Members of the family Theridiidae weave irregular, tangled, three-dimensional webs, popularly known as cobwebs.

There seems to be an evolutionary trend towards a reduction in the amount of sticky silk used, leading to its total absence in some species.

The construction of cobwebs is less stereotyped than that of orb-webs, and may take several days. The Linyphiidae generally make horizontal but uneven sheets, with tangles of stopping threads above.

Insects that hit the stopping threads fall onto the sheet or are shaken onto it by the spider, and are held by sticky threads on the sheet until the spider can attack from below.

Although the fossil record of spiders is considered poor, [65] almost species have been described from fossils. In addition to preserving spiders' anatomy in very fine detail, pieces of amber show spiders mating, killing prey, producing silk and possibly caring for their young.

Hence Attercopus and the similar Permian arachnid Permarachne may not have been true spiders, and probably used silk for lining nests or producing egg-cases rather than for building webs.

Several Carboniferous spiders were members of the Mesothelae , a primitive group now represented only by the Liphistiidae. Some Triassic mygalomorphs appear to be members of the family Hexathelidae , whose modern members include the notorious Sydney funnel-web spider , and their spinnerets appear adapted for building funnel-shaped webs to catch jumping insects.

Araneomorphae account for the great majority of modern spiders, including those that weave the familiar orb-shaped webs. The Jurassic and Cretaceous periods provide a large number of fossil spiders, including representatives of many modern families.

It is now agreed that spiders Araneae are monophyletic i. The cladogram on the right is based on J. Other views include proposals that: The appearance of several multi-way branchings in the tree on the right shows that there are still uncertainties about relationships between the groups involved.

Arachnids lack some features of other chelicerates, including backward-pointing mouths and gnathobases "jaw bases" at the bases of their legs; [75] both of these features are part of the ancestral arthropod feeding system.

Spiders are divided into two suborders, Mesothelae and Opisthothelae , of which the latter contains two infraorders, Mygalomorphae and Araneomorphae.

Nearly 46, living species of spiders order Araneae have been identified and as of grouped into about families and about 4, genera by arachnologists.

The only living members of the primitive Mesothelae are the family Liphistiidae , found only in Southeast Asia , China , and Japan. Members of the genus Liphistius run silk " tripwires " outwards from their tunnels to help them detect approaching prey, while those of genus Heptathela do not and instead rely on their built-in vibration sensors.

The extinct families Arthrolycosidae , found in Carboniferous and Permian rocks, and Arthromygalidae , so far found only in Carboniferous rocks, have been classified as members of the Mesothelae.

The Mygalomorphae, which first appeared in the Triassic period, [70] are generally heavily built and hairy, with large, robust chelicerae and fangs. However, mygalomorphs cannot produce the pirifom silk that the Araneomorphae use as instant adhesive to glue silk to surfaces or to other strands of silk, and this makes web construction more difficult for mygalomorphs.

Since mygalomorphs rarely "balloon" by using air currents for transport, their populations often form clumps. Although spiders are widely feared, only a few species are dangerous to people.

Their venom, although they rarely inject much, has resulted in 13 attributed human deaths over 50 years. There were about reliably reported deaths from spider bites in the 20th century, [92] compared to about 1, from jellyfish stings.

Even when verification had occurred, details of the treatment and its effects were often lacking. Spider venoms may be a less polluting alternative to conventional pesticides , as they are deadly to insects but the great majority are harmless to vertebrates.

Australian funnel web spiders are a promising source, as most of the world's insect pests have had no opportunity to develop any immunity to their venom, and funnel web spiders thrive in captivity and are easy to "milk".

It may be possible to target specific pests by engineering genes for the production of spider toxins into viruses that infect species such as cotton bollworms.

The Ch'ol Maya use a beverage created from the tarantula species Brachypelma vagans for the treatment of a condition they term 'tarantula wind', the symptoms of which include chest pain, asthma and coughing.

Possible medical uses for spider venoms are being investigated, for the treatment of cardiac arrhythmia , [99] Alzheimer's disease , [] strokes , [] and erectile dysfunction.

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An abnormal fear of spiders is called arachnophobia. Spiders are chelicerates and therefore arthropods. In fact, chelicerates' only appendages ahead of the mouth are a pair of chelicerae , and they lack anything that would function directly as "jaws".

Spiders and scorpions are members of one chelicerate group, the arachnids. The upper sections generally have thick "beards" that filter solid lumps out of their food, as spiders can take only liquid food.

In spiders, the cephalothorax and abdomen are joined by a small, cylindrical pedicel , which enables the abdomen to move independently when producing silk.

The upper surface of the cephalothorax is covered by a single, convex carapace , while the underside is covered by two rather flat plates.

The abdomen is soft and egg-shaped. It shows no sign of segmentation, except that the primitive Mesothelae , whose living members are the Liphistiidae , have segmented plates on the upper surface.

Like other arthropods, spiders are coelomates in which the coelom is reduced to small areas round the reproductive and excretory systems.

Its place is largely taken by a hemocoel , a cavity that runs most of the length of the body and through which blood flows. The heart is a tube in the upper part of the body, with a few ostia that act as non-return valves allowing blood to enter the heart from the hemocoel but prevent it from leaving before it reaches the front end.

Hence spiders have open circulatory systems. Spiders have developed several different respiratory anatomies, based on book lungs , a tracheal system, or both.

Mygalomorph and Mesothelae spiders have two pairs of book lungs filled with haemolymph, where openings on the ventral surface of the abdomen allow air to enter and diffuse oxygen.

This is also the case for some basal araneomorph spiders, like the family Hypochilidae , but the remaining members of this group have just the anterior pair of book lungs intact while the posterior pair of breathing organs are partly or fully modified into tracheae, through which oxygen is diffused into the haemolymph or directly to the tissue and organs.

Uniquely among chelicerates , the final sections of spiders' chelicerae are fangs, and the great majority of spiders can use them to inject venom into prey from venom glands in the roots of the chelicerae.

Some pump digestive enzymes from the midgut into the prey and then suck the liquified tissues of the prey into the gut, eventually leaving behind the empty husk of the prey.

Others grind the prey to pulp using the chelicerae and the bases of the pedipalps , while flooding it with enzymes; in these species, the chelicerae and the bases of the pedipalps form a preoral cavity that holds the food they are processing.

The stomach in the cephalothorax acts as a pump that sends the food deeper into the digestive system. The mid gut bears many digestive ceca , compartments with no other exit, that extract nutrients from the food; most are in the abdomen, which is dominated by the digestive system, but a few are found in the cephalothorax.

Most spiders convert nitrogenous waste products into uric acid , which can be excreted as a dry material.

Malphigian tubules "little tubes" extract these wastes from the blood in the hemocoel and dump them into the cloacal chamber, from which they are expelled through the anus.

The basic arthropod central nervous system consists of a pair of nerve cords running below the gut, with paired ganglia as local control centers in all segments; a brain formed by fusion of the ganglia for the head segments ahead of and behind the mouth, so that the esophagus is encircled by this conglomeration of ganglia.

Despite the relatively small central nervous system, some spiders like Portia exhibit complex behaviour, including the ability to use a trial-and-error approach.

Spiders have primarily four pairs of eyes on the top-front area of the cephalothorax, arranged in patterns that vary from one family to another.

However, in spiders these eyes are capable of forming images. Unlike the principal eyes, in many spiders these secondary eyes detect light reflected from a reflective tapetum lucidum , and wolf spiders can be spotted by torch light reflected from the tapeta.

On the other hand, jumping spiders' secondary eyes have no tapeta. Other differences between the principal and secondary eyes are that the latter have rhabdomeres that point away from incoming light, just like in vertebrates, while the arrangement is the opposite in the former.

The principal eyes are also the only ones with eye muscles, allowing them to move the retina. Having no muscles, the secondary eyes are immobile. Some jumping spiders' visual acuity exceeds by a factor of ten that of dragonflies , which have by far the best vision among insects ; in fact the human eye is only about five times sharper than a jumping spider's.

They achieve this by a telephoto -like series of lenses, a four-layer retina and the ability to swivel their eyes and integrate images from different stages in the scan.

The downside is that the scanning and integrating processes are relatively slow. There are spiders with a reduced number of eyes, of these those with six-eyes are the most numerous and are missing a pair of eyes on the anterior median line , [22] others species have four-eyes and some just two.

Cave dwelling species have no eyes, or possess vestigial eyes incapable of sight. As with other arthropods, spiders' cuticles would block out information about the outside world, except that they are penetrated by many sensors or connections from sensors to the nervous system.

In fact, spiders and other arthropods have modified their cuticles into elaborate arrays of sensors. Various touch sensors, mostly bristles called setae , respond to different levels of force, from strong contact to very weak air currents.

Chemical sensors provide equivalents of taste and smell , often by means of setae. Males have more chemosensitive hairs on their pedipalps than females.

They have been shown to be responsive to sex pheromones produced by females, both contact and air-borne. In web-building spiders, all these mechanical and chemical sensors are more important than the eyes, while the eyes are most important to spiders that hunt actively.

Like most arthropods, spiders lack balance and acceleration sensors and rely on their eyes to tell them which way is up. Arthropods' proprioceptors , sensors that report the force exerted by muscles and the degree of bending in the body and joints, are well understood.

On the other hand, little is known about what other internal sensors spiders or other arthropods may have. Each of the eight legs of a spider consists of seven distinct parts.

The part closest to and attaching the leg to the cephalothorax is the coxa ; the next segment is the short trochanter that works as a hinge for the following long segment, the femur ; next is the spider's knee, the patella , which acts as the hinge for the tibia ; the metatarsus is next, and it connects the tibia to the tarsus which may be thought of as a foot of sorts ; the tarsus ends in a claw made up of either two or three points, depending on the family to which the spider belongs.

Although all arthropods use muscles attached to the inside of the exoskeleton to flex their limbs, spiders and a few other groups still use hydraulic pressure to extend them, a system inherited from their pre-arthropod ancestors.

Most spiders that hunt actively, rather than relying on webs, have dense tufts of fine hairs between the paired claws at the tips of their legs.

These tufts, known as scopulae , consist of bristles whose ends are split into as many as 1, branches, and enable spiders with scopulae to walk up vertical glass and upside down on ceilings.

It appears that scopulae get their grip from contact with extremely thin layers of water on surfaces. The abdomen has no appendages except those that have been modified to form one to four usually three pairs of short, movable spinnerets , which emit silk.

Each spinneret has many spigots , each of which is connected to one silk gland. There are at least six types of silk gland, each producing a different type of silk.

Silk is mainly composed of a protein very similar to that used in insect silk. It is initially a liquid, and hardens not by exposure to air but as a result of being drawn out, which changes the internal structure of the protein.

In other words, it can stretch much further before breaking or losing shape. Some spiders have a cribellum , a modified spinneret with up to 40, spigots, each of which produces a single very fine fiber.

The fibers are pulled out by the calamistrum , a comb-like set of bristles on the jointed tip of the cribellum, and combined into a composite woolly thread that is very effective in snagging the bristles of insects.

The earliest spiders had cribella, which produced the first silk capable of capturing insects, before spiders developed silk coated with sticky droplets.

However, most modern groups of spiders have lost the cribellum. Tarantulas also have silk glands in their feet.

Even species that do not build webs to catch prey use silk in several ways: Spiders reproduce sexually and fertilization is internal but indirect, in other words the sperm is not inserted into the female's body by the male's genitals but by an intermediate stage.

Unlike many land-living arthropods , [30] male spiders do not produce ready-made spermatophores packages of sperm , but spin small sperm webs on to which they ejaculate and then transfer the sperm to special syringe -like structures, palpal bulbs or palpal organs, borne on the tips of the pedipalps of mature males.

When a male detects signs of a female nearby he checks whether she is of the same species and whether she is ready to mate; for example in species that produce webs or "safety ropes", the male can identify the species and sex of these objects by "smell".

Spiders generally use elaborate courtship rituals to prevent the large females from eating the small males before fertilization, except where the male is so much smaller that he is not worth eating.

In web-weaving species, precise patterns of vibrations in the web are a major part of the rituals, while patterns of touches on the female's body are important in many spiders that hunt actively, and may "hypnotize" the female.

Gestures and dances by the male are important for jumping spiders , which have excellent eyesight. If courtship is successful, the male injects his sperm from the palpal bulbs into the female's genital opening, known as the epigyne , on the underside of her abdomen.

Female's reproductive tracts vary from simple tubes to systems that include seminal receptacles in which females store sperm and release it when they are ready.

The only known exception is a spider from Israel, Harpactea sadistica , which has evolved traumatic insemination. In this species the male will penetrate its pedipalps through the female's body wall and inject his sperm directly into her ovaries, where the embryos inside the fertilized eggs will start to develop before being laid.

Males of the genus Tidarren amputate one of their palps before maturation and enter adult life with one palp only.

In the Yemeni species Tidarren argo , the remaining palp is then torn off by the female. The separated palp remains attached to the female's epigynum for about four hours and apparently continues to function independently.

In the meantime, the female feeds on the palpless male. Observation shows that most male redbacks never get an opportunity to mate, and the "lucky" ones increase the likely number of offspring by ensuring that the females are well-fed.

Some even live for a while in their mates' webs. Gasteracantha mammosa spiderlings next to their eggs capsule. Wolf spider carrying its young on its abdomen.

Females lay up to 3, eggs in one or more silk egg sacs, [8] which maintain a fairly constant humidity level. Baby spiders pass all their larval stages inside the egg and hatch as spiderlings, very small and sexually immature but similar in shape to adults.

Some spiders care for their young, for example a wolf spider 's brood cling to rough bristles on the mother's back, [8] and females of some species respond to the "begging" behaviour of their young by giving them their prey, provided it is no longer struggling, or even regurgitate food.

Like other arthropods , spiders have to molt to grow as their cuticle "skin" cannot stretch. Spiders occur in a large range of sizes.

The smallest, Patu digua from Colombia, are less than 0. Only three classes of pigment ommochromes , bilins and guanine have been identified in spiders, although other pigments have been detected but not yet characterized.

Melanins , carotenoids and pterins , very common in other animals, are apparently absent. In some species, the exocuticle of the legs and prosoma is modified by a tanning process, resulting in brown coloration.

Guanine is responsible for the white markings of the European garden spider Araneus diadematus. It is in many species accumulated in specialized cells called guanocytes.

In genera such as Tetragnatha , Leucauge , Argyrodes or Theridiosoma , guanine creates their silvery appearance. While guanine is originally an end-product of protein metabolism, its excretion can be blocked in spiders, leading to an increase in its storage.

The white prosoma of Argiope results from hairs reflecting the light, Lycosa and Josa both have areas of modified cuticle that act as light reflectors.

Juveniles of some spiders in the families Anyphaenidae , Corinnidae , Clubionidae , Thomisidae and Salticidae feed on plant nectar.

Laboratory studies show that they do so deliberately and over extended periods, and periodically clean themselves while feeding.

These spiders also prefer sugar solutions to plain water, which indicates that they are seeking nutrients. Since many spiders are nocturnal, the extent of nectar consumption by spiders may have been underestimated.

Nectar contains amino acids , lipids , vitamins and minerals in addition to sugars, and studies have shown that other spider species live longer when nectar is available.

Feeding on nectar avoids the risks of struggles with prey, and the costs of producing venom and digestive enzymes. Various species are known to feed on dead arthropods scavenging , web silk, and their own shed exoskeletons.

Pollen caught in webs may also be eaten, and studies have shown that young spiders have a better chance of survival if they have the opportunity to eat pollen.

In captivity, several spider species are also known to feed on bananas , marmalade , milk , egg yolk and sausages.

The best-known method of prey capture is by means of sticky webs. Varying placement of webs allows different species of spider to trap different insects in the same area, for example flat horizontal webs trap insects that fly up from vegetation underneath while flat vertical webs trap insects in horizontal flight.

Web-building spiders have poor vision, but are extremely sensitive to vibrations. Females of the water spider Argyroneta aquatica build underwater "diving bell" webs that they fill with air and use for digesting prey, molting, mating and raising offspring.

They live almost entirely within the bells, darting out to catch prey animals that touch the bell or the threads that anchor it.

Net-casting spiders weave only small webs, but then manipulate them to trap prey. Those of the genus Hyptiotes and the family Theridiosomatidae stretch their webs and then release them when prey strike them, but do not actively move their webs.

Those of the family Deinopidae weave even smaller webs, hold them outstretched between their first two pairs of legs, and lunge and push the webs as much as twice their own body length to trap prey, and this move may increase the webs' area by a factor of up to ten.

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Auf Zigiz kannst du kostenlos online spielen! During all of this, Gwen's band, the Mary Janes, are about to play a concert—the first major one of their career as a band.

Gwen arrives late just in time to see her father being attacked by the assassin and quickly dispatches him, but ends up being cornered at gunpoint by him.

To avoid getting shot, she reveals to her father that she is Spider-Woman. After the Spider-verse event Gwen goes back to her ordinary life of bumming around by day and Spider-Woman-ing by night.

Since Gwen revealed herself to her father he left the Spider-Woman case and the investigation was passed on to detective Frank Castle.

Gwen is also failing to meet the expectations of her friends and is living life one moment at a time. Suddenly the villain Vulture appears, secretly working for the Kingpin Matt Murdock , and causes trouble for Gwen Spider Ham appears for a short time as a hallucination because of an attack.

Gwen defeats Vulture and in the end he is put away, Murdock continuing to influence him from behind bars. Frank Castle increases his efforts against Spider-Woman, becoming more and more ruthless.

Castle eventually makes the connection with Spider-Woman's identity and enlists the help of Kraven the Hunter to perform a siege on the Stacy house.

Castle and Kraven brutally beat down Gwen after she gets her father to safety. The volume concludes when Gwen decides to take a stand against Castle and not run any longer, blindsiding him as he unmasks her while trying to get away.

Gwen is now unsure of how secure her secret identity is as she hides from her father and awaits the recollection of Frank Castle. Her problems are put to the side when a Lizard appears on the streets, seemingly having taken something like Peter Parker's formula.

Tracking the Lizard into the sewer, Spider-Woman encounters a pack of Lizard men and uses all her strength to fend them off. Gwen battles CA furiously while avoiding the Lizards as well.

Gwen saves CA from the Lizards and they part ways on good terms. Gwen gifts Bodega Bandit a hamster named Pine Cone at this point as a replacement for his dog, Bandito.

He explains his connection with S. He appears nights later in a green mechanical suit accompanied by an army of orange robots to kill Spider-Woman.

After an issue-long battle, Harry sets off an explosion to even the playing field. As Gwen lies on the floor, Harry drinks a vial of the Lizard formula and unmasks her to his surprise.

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